Prosthetic heart valve is also known as artificial heart valve that are implanted in the heart of an individual with cardiac vascular disease (valvular heart disease). Prosthetic valve is made of strong material such as carbon or titanium. There are three types of prosthetic heart valve: mechanical heart valve, transcatheter heart valve, and tissue or bio-prosthetic heart valve. Most of the individual are recommended the choice of prosthesis depending on their health condition.
Prosthetic heart valve is implanted in individual suffering from valvular heart disease. Heart valve replacement procedure helps to remove the diseases heart valve and replace with an artificial valve. The recommendation of prosthetic valve is based on two considerations; high likelihood of failure of tissue prosthesis within a short period of time and high likelihood of need for long-term anticoagulation in an individual with severe mitral stenosis that is due to atrial fibrillation. However, individual aged below 60 should carefully choose their prosthesis valve as they will benefit from prosthetic mechanical valve and individual aged above 70 would benefit from a bio prosthetic valve.
Heart valves are very important parts of heart an provide right flow of blood in the right direction. If the heart valves don’t work properly, blood disruption occurs causing a condition called stenosis. This condition restricts the amount of blood that can flow leading to various heart conditions such as: coronary artery disease, congenital heart defects, degenerative valve disease, and rheumatic fever, and bacterial endocarditis (infections).
Selection criteria for prosthetic heart valve
The selection of prosthetic valves is dependent on the type of conditions and recommendation by the surgeon weather to choose a bio prosthetic or mechanical valve after evaluation. The evaluation is based on the risk and benefits of each of the two types, physical condition, lifestyle, and age. Prosthetic heart valve offers both advantages and disadvantages where the choice is best suited to balance the individual medical condition.
Bio prosthetic valves have low risk of thrombo-embolic risk and do not require life-long anticoagulation therapy. However, the tissue deterioration is higher, which may lead to a further operation to replace the valve. Mechanical valve is usually used for people aged below 60 and are made of non-biological material given with anticoagulation therapy. This entails daily activity and diet with regular blood test to make sure that the patient is always taking the right dosage.
- Advancement in technology has led to next-generation heart valves, which have accurate function upon implantation and regenerates into-long lasting
- Increase demand of carbon based mechanical and biological tissue valve that are selected based on the condition of the patient
- Cardiac imaging techniques have high demand representing high opportunity for prosthetic heart valve vendors
- Emergence of low-profile, retrievable, and repositionable systems especially in emerging countries in on high demand
– Mohammed Azhar,
Senior Research Analyst,