Targeted drug delivery system with maximum therapeutic benefit and minimum side effects has long been a challenge to the medical fraternity. Nanotechnology is playing a key role in turning this dream into reality with the help of nanorobots. These Nanorobots are capable of functioning as multitasking agents for combating targeted infections and deadly diseases like cancer. Researchers all over the world are working on developing newer and more efficient techniques to make these microscopic nanorobots go swimming in the body fluids to deliver expected therapeutic benefits.
These nanorobots are machines which are capable of offering precision in control by sensing the environment around them just like robots. In diseases such as cancer, where most drugs have serious side effects nanorobots target only cancer cells differentiating them from healthy cells and hence offer side-effect free treatment.
In addition to improving therapeutic benefits, these nanobots can act as a disaster management system present in the blood to warn against microbial infestations. Nanobots can also aid surgeons to perform minimally invasive or in some cases non-invasive surgeries without any external wounds and complications.
Types of Nanorobots
- Respirocyte nanorobots – These nanorobots are ideal to treat patients suffering from anaemia. They function in a similar manner as that of red blood cells in human bodies but are designed to carry more oxygen contained in a tank held at high pressure. They use sensors to determine the concentration of oxygen in the bloodstream with a valve attached to it which helps to release additional oxygen when required.
- Clottocyte nanorobots – They perform the function of platelets in the human blood and help to stick together wounds to form a clot stopping the flow of blood. Clottocyte nanorobots are capable of storing fibers within, until the wound is encountered. These nanorobots disperse fibers in a fraction of the time as compared to platelets which together help in creating a clot.
- Microbivore Nanorobots – This type of nanorobots functions in the same way as white blood cell does in a human body. Their capabilities go beyond antibiotics as they are designed to destroy bacteria faster and eliminate infections in patients within minutes.
- Cellular repair nanorobots – These nanorobots build and perform surgical procedures with precision. They are capable of working at a cellular level and prevent damage caused by a clumsy scalpel.
All critical diseases are time-sensitive, diagnosing the disease and treating them in quick time is extremely important. Here is where a technology like nanorobots plays a critical role by working in cognizance with each other to perform the task of two different cells at a time using gold nanowires, hybrid platelet, and red blood cells. These combinations of different nanorobots designed to carry multiple agents help in accomplishing the goal of eradicating cancerous solid tumours and vascularized metastases at a much faster speed than an existing antibiotic or a dialysis machine.
– Pavan Mudholkar,
Sr. Research Analyst,